Article (definite, indefinite and zero):
Active voice:
Calques: Calques are translations of entire words or phrases from one language into another. They represent the simplest forms of Spanglish, as they undergo no lexical or grammatical structural change. The use of calques is common throughout most languages, evident in the calques of Arabic exclamations used in Spanish. Examples:
“to call back” → llamar p’atrás (volver a llamar)
“It’s up to you.” → Está p’arriba de ti. (Depende de ti.)
“to run for governor” → correr para gobernador (presentarse para gobernador)
Cleft (sentence):
Conjunction: linking words
Fromlostiano: Spanish street ad in Madrid humorously showing baidefeis instead of the Spanish gratis (free).
Baidefeis derives from the English “by the face”; Spanish: por la cara, “free”. The adoption of English words is very common in Spain.
Fromlostiano is a type of artificial and humorous wordplay which consists of taking Spanish idioms and translating their literal definitions word-for-word into English. The name fromlostiano comes from the expression From Lost to the River, which is a word-for-word translation of de perdidos al río; an idiom meaning that one is prone to choose a particularly risky action in a desperate situation (this is somewhat comparable to the English idiom in for a penny, in for a pound). The humor comes from the fact that while the expression is completely grammatical in English, it makes no sense to a native English speaker. Hence it is necessary to understand both languages in order to appreciate the humor.
Future perfect (continuous):
Gender neutrality:
Lexis: the lexical make up of a language is the words it uses
Loan words: Loan words occur in any language due to the presence of items or ideas not present in the culture before, such as modern technology. The increasing rate of technological growth requires the use of loan words from the donor language due to the lack of its definition in the lexicon of the main language. This partially deals with the “prestige” of the donor language, which either forms a dissimilar or more similar word from the loan word. The growth of modern technology can be seen in the expressions: “hacer click” (to click), “mandar un e-mail” (to send an e-mail), “faxear” (to fax), “textear” (to text message), or “hacker” (hacker). Some words borrowed from the donor languages are adapted to the language, while others remain unassimilated (e. g. “sandwich”). The items most associated with Spanglish refer to words assimilated into the main morphology. Borrowing words from English and “Spanishizing” them has typically occurred through immigrants. This method makes new words by pronouncing an English word “Spanish style”, thus dropping final consonants, softening others, and replacing certain consonants (i.e., M’s, N’s, V’s) with B’s. Examples:
“Taipear” (to type)
“Marqueta” (market)
“Biles” (bills)
“Líder” (leader)
Lonchear/Lonchar” (to have lunch)
Modal verb:
Participle clauses:
Passive voice:
Perfect (aspect):
Phrasal verb:
Pronoun :
Semantic extensions: Semantic extension or reassignment refers to a phenomenon where speakers of the originating language use a word more similar to that of a second language in place of their own with a similar, or not so similar, meaning. Usually this occurs in the case of false cognates, where similar words are thought to have like meanings based on their cognates. This occurs often between speakers of two languages due to the likeness of the cognates and different meanings among any language. Examples:
“Carpeta” in place of “moqueta” or “alfombra” (carpet)
“Aplicación” in place of “solicitud” (application)
“Rentar” in place of “alquilar” (to rent)
“Remover” in place of “quitar” (to remove)[14]
“Chequear” in place of “comprobar” or “verificar” (to check)
“Parquear” in place of “estacionar” or “aparcar” (to park)
“Actualmente” (means ‘present’) for “actually”
“Bizarro” (meaning ‘far fetched’) for “bizarre”
An example of the lexical phenomenon in Spanglish is the emergence of new verbs, when an English verb is added onto the Spanish infinitive morphemes (-er, -ar, and -ir). For example, the Spanish verb “to call”, originally llamar, becomes telefonear (telephone+ar); the Spanish verb “to eat lunch”, originally almorzar, becomes lunchear (lunch+ar), etc. The same is applicable to the newly created verbs: watchear, puchar, parquear, emailear, and twittear (among others).[15]
Syllable: queue versus quietly
Transitivity (verb):